We use a number of different methods for water crossings. The primary method is a trenchless crossing which does not affect the bed and banks of the stream or the sensitivity of fishery. This method uses drill technology to go under the water course, attach to the pipe and pull it back under.
We also use two types of isolation crossings, dam-and-pump and flume. The dam-and-pump method requires putting a dam both upstream and downstream of the water course, drying out the area to install the pipe, pulling the isolation, and reclaiming the bed and banks to preconstruction conditions. A flume is a giant pipe placed in the water course that channels the water through while the pipeline is constructed and installed. The last technique we use is the open-cut method. This method is used for small crossings, when the water body is dry or frozen to the bottom, and when there are low fishery sensitivities.